Bio-ORACLE | Marinevre

Bio-ORACLE: Marine data layers for ecological modelling

Linking biodiversity occurrence data to the physical and biotic environment provides a framework to formulate hypotheses about the ecological processes governing spatial and temporal patterns in biodiversity, which can be useful for marine ecosystem management and conservation.

Bio-ORACLE offers a user-friendly solution to accomplish this task by providing 18 global geophysical, biotic and climate layers at a common spatial resolution (5 arcmin, approximately 9.2 km at the equator) and a uniform landmask.


Developed by: 
Bio-ORACLE is developed by a team of marine researchers from the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ), the University of Algarve, the University of Melbourne and Ghent University.
Used data resources: 

Layers to download:

  • Temperature (°C)
  • Salinity (PSS)
  • Currents velocity (m-1)
  • Ice thickness (m)
  • Sea ice concentration (Fraction)
  • Nitrate (mol.m-3)
  • Phosphate (mol.m-3)
  • Silicate (mol.m-3)
  • Dissolved molecular oxygen (mol.m-3)
  • Iron (µmol.m-3)
  • Chlorophyll (mg.m-3)
  • Phytoplankton (µmol.m-3)
  • Primary productivity (
  • Calcite (mol.m-3)
  • pH
  • Photosynt. Avail. Radiation (
  • Diffuse attenuation (m-1)
  • Cloud cover (%)
Web services: 

Data can be downloaded either as ascii or tiff raster files using the interactive download manager or the sdmpredictors package in R:

Used in tools: 

The list of published studies that use or cire Bio-ORACLE can be explorer here.